Citizen’s band (CB) radio is commonly used for mobile and fixed stations. To increase the CB radio range, review your radio frequency output, station location, antenna height, and antenna setup and type. Weather conditions and time of day (TOD) also affect the range. The transmit power and antenna system of the radio also need to be optimized. If the power output is too low, use a power meter and check the output power at the antenna port on the radio, which requires an extra jumper cable to connect the meter.
By inserting a power meter in the antenna cable, the amount of forward and reflected power can be verified. Make sure that the reflected power is less than 3% of the forward power. When power from the radio is sent to the antenna, some of it returns back to the radio, which is called reverse power. The standing wave ratio (SWR) meter is a good alternative to using a power meter with forward and reverse power readings. Most meters that measure power also measure SWR.
A higher antenna may also improve the CB radio range because ground effects are fewer. CB radio signals work partly on line of sight (LOS) propagation. When the antenna is higher, the antenna cable is usually longer, unless the radio was moved to a higher floor. As the antenna cable gets longer, the loss in the antenna cable also increases, which may partly defeat the purpose of raising the antenna.
A signal booster may compensate for the loss on the longer antenna cable. Given the maximum allowed input power to be radiated by the antenna, the signal booster may be connected about halfway upward to the antenna. Other versions of the signal booster also amplify the received signal so that the range is increased in both directions.
There are different types of antenna for CB radios. The all-direction, or omnidirectional, antenna is available in various shapes, such as a single active whip or an array of dipoles. Dipoles are usually fed in the center of the vertical position of the antenna. Some special antennas are omnidirectional and have the ability to turn to a particular direction, either electrically or physically. These antennas come with rotator controls that may use either a motor-driven physical rotator or an electrical rotator that changes the phase characteristics of the legs to produce the high gain in the desired direction.