Different types of language disorders not only affect speech, but also involve reading, writing, and listening. Behaving appropriately in social situations, understanding others, and making oneself understood are common struggles people with language impairments face. Aphasia, auditory processing disorder, and semantic pragmatic disorder are a few examples of the many types of language disorders.
Aphasia, also called dysphasia, is an example of the acquired types of language disorders. This disorder describes partial or total impairment of comprehension or production of written or spoken language. It is acquired, meaning that it is not present at birth, but rather is a side effect of brain injury. Brain tumor, stroke, and brain hemorrhage are some conditions that can cause aphasia.
Auditory processing disorder, also called central auditory processing disorder, is one of the rarer types of disorders of language, affecting about 5 percent of children. The problem stems from dysfunction in communication between the ears and brain, leaving children unable to comprehend speech properly. People with this disorder can usually hear sounds normally, and the problem occurs in the processing of auditory information, such as differentiating between similar sounding words.
Dyslexia, also called developmental reading disorder, is one of the most common types of language disorders. This disorder describes an inability to process graphic symbols, such as those in written language. The problem is not related to vision, but rather the processing and understanding of what is being seen. People with dyslexia have a hard time connecting letters of words to the sounds of language. An early sign of dyslexia is often difficulty rhyming.
Lisps are also common types of disorders involving language. This disorder describes a person who cannot make a specific speech sound. Interdental, lateral, and palatal are the three types of lisp. Interdental lisps occur when the tongue obstructs speech by coming in between the teeth while trying to make a sound. Lateral lisps occur when air escapes from the sides of the tongue, and a wet sound is produced that prevents proper speech. Lastly, a palatal lisp is caused by the mid-section of the tongue touching the soft palate.
Semantic pragmatic disorder is one of the types of language disorders linked to autism. This disorder was originally thought to be separate from autism, but recent findings have shown that many people with autism also have this kind of language impairment. Understanding others and effectively communicating is very difficult for people with this disorder. Confusing the words I and you, difficulty understanding questions involving why and how, and repeating phrases out of context, often from a television program, are some common symptoms of semantic pragmatic disorder.