A dramatic soprano is a female operatic voice type, as classified by the Fach system, characterized by a high range but a dark timbre. It is of a full, rich quality and stamina, as well as strong emotive quality and volume, though with limited agility. A soprano of another sub-type, such as the Wagnerian or coloratura soprano, usually evolves or grows into this type as her voice changes. Roles written for this category require substantial vocal weight and are often mythic, suffering characters. A dramatic soprano may experience vocal issues transitioning to this new type, and technique adjustment is required in this case.
This voice type's range typically runs from E3 to D6. Thicker vocal folds give the voice a full and powerful sound, but she has less agility than a soprano with a higher, lighter quality. The tessitura, the place where the singer's voice sounds best, lies lower in her range than other sopranos. Her voice, however, often has immense strength and can easily be heard over an orchestra.
Roles written for a dramatic soprano tend to be heavy and demanding, with mythic and suffering heroines making up the majority. The pinnacle for this type is a "Wagnerian soprano." The singer's registers are perfectly balanced with each other and voice is full and dense, sometimes being able to be heard over an 80- to 100-piece orchestra. Roles for Wagnerian sopranos include Elektra from the opera of the same title and Kundry in Wagner's Parsifal.
The coloratura dramatic soprano is a rare voice type, having power and richness with notable flexibility and a higher range. A dramatic soprano's emotive qualities and rich sound also allow her to sing non-operatic genres well. Outside the genre, this singer is known as a jazz or gospel soprano, depending on which type of music she sings.
While a singer may remain a soprano her entire life, her sub-type likely changes over time. The voice goes through a variety of changes, and the timbre that a singer had at 18 is likely different than the one she experiences in her 40s. The shift to dramatic soprano typically happens after the age of 30, though a younger singer may be classified as one if her voice best fits this category.
A variety of vocal issues may present themselves for the dramatic soprano. Since she's likely experiencing significant changes in her voice, or has recently done so, she may have difficulty adjusting her technique and approach to her new voice. Also, problems that have existed for a long period of time may have not shown themselves until this point, since she may have sung with a higher, lighter tone that disguised them. Many dramatic sopranos experience issues with breathing and support that can lead to a loss of musicality, vibrato problems, and stamina issues, among others.