A monosyllabic language is a language that mostly consists of words with a single sound to them. Such languages can have a wide number of monosyllabic words, but often use different tones in order to produce a wider variety of sounds. Old Chinese is an example of a monosyllabic language.
A syllable is a basic unit of sound in a language. All words contain at least one voiced syllable. Languages such as Japanese use syllables as their basic linguistic unit and as their alphabet. Others, like English, use their alphabet to create a larger number of sounds. The character of the language defines how many syllables tend to make up the average word.
This sound can be made from a single letter, but is most often a combination of two letters. Usually, this takes the form of a vowel (V) and a consonant (C) in a CA or VC form. It is often possible for the consonant to be followed by two vowels, such as ‘moo,’ with the sound still making a single syllable.
In many languages, single-syllable words can include a larger number of letters. For example, in English, the words ‘want’ and ‘have’ both have CVCC constructions with consonants on either side of the vowel while still creating a single sound. The longest monosyllabic word in English is Schmaltzed, with a CCCCVCCCVC construction including two separated vowels.
Languages often have another way of increasing the number of sounds. This is achieved through the introduction of tones. Chinese is the most prominent example of a tonal language, but there are others, like Bantu and Thai. With tonal languages, a single monosyllabic word can have a whole host of meanings depending on the tone used. In Vietnamese, there are six tones. This means that any one monosyllabic word can have six meanings by changing the tone.
Some languages, such as German, naturally create polysyllabic words by forming compounds, whereas others such as Latin and Hungarian conjugate their words by adding additional suffixes. It is hypothesized by some that some monosyllabic languages began life as polysyllabic ones, but changed over time or under the influence of another language.
Another idea is that each proto-language began life as a monosyllabic language. Such scholars believe that languages developed in Africa in line with human development. They believe humans began creating new sounds by imitating the sounds of animals around them. This has been demonstrated by the names for the first Egyptian gods: Ba (Ram), Mu (Cow) and Mau (Cat).