The emissions from gas-powered cars are not only a cause of the diminishing ozone, but they the American Lung Association has said that it is a frequent cause of lung disease. This, in addition to waning fuel supplies and increased gas prices, has lead automobile manufacturers to begin making zero-emission vehicles. A zero-emission vehicle, also called a ZEV, is an automobile that does not create pollutants.
Zero-emission vehicles can be powered by two different sources: electricity or hydrogen. Some forms of both electric and hydrogen cars, particularly those that are powered by fossil fuel plants, also pollute. The true types of zero-emission vehicles run on solar or wind power.
The first zero-emission vehicle was the electric car. When powered by batteries that are recharged with solar or wind power, electric cars emit dramatically fewer pollutants than those powered from a fossil fuel power plant.
Zero-emission vehicles can also be powered by hydrogen. Those that use fossil fuels may produce just as much pollution as gas-powered cars. Hydrogen cars that use solar power to generate hydrogen from water do not produce emissions.
Vehicles such as hybrids are not true zero-emission vehicles. Hybrids are cars that operate both by gas and environment friendly means, such as electricity. These are called partial zero-emission vehicles because, though they produce far less pollution than traditional fuel-powered vehicles, they still emit pollutants.
One problem that has hindered the production of zero-emission vehicles is the cost associated with producing solar and wind power. The pressing need for vehicles powered by a source other than fuel has consistently been lowering the additional costs.
Another problem in manufacturing solar-powered cars is the need for sunlight. Solar-powered cars need sunlight to run, so factors like weather, time of day, and time of year must all be considered in order to ensure a consistently powered vehicle.
Buyers interested in purchasing a zero-emission vehicle should start their search early. Companies that manufacture hydrogen and electric cars do so in small numbers, and there are usually waiting lists. Ford, Chrysler, Toyota, Honda, Chevrolet, and General Motors all manufacture some form of zero-emission vehicle.
Buyers may also be encouraged to become zero or partial-emission vehicle owners due to the associated tax breaks. Some states in the United States provide driving benefits to zero or partial-emission vehicle owners; that is, single drivers of zero or partial-emission vehicles in some states may drive in the carpool lanes.
It should be noted that though these vehicles are emissions-free, they don't minimize the level of pollution produced in the manufacturing process, and the effects of pollution caused by wear on the car have not yet been determined.