Abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology which deals with behaviors which are considered abnormal, along with psychological phenomena which have not been fully explained, such as dreams, altered mental states, and hypnosis. The goal of this branch of psychology is to understand the root causes of such behavior, to determine how and if the behavior should be addressed, and to develop a treatment plan which will help an individual patient. People who seek assistance from psychologists, counselors, and psychiatrists benefit from their study of abnormal psychology. It is also a very interesting subject, for people who have a chance to take an abnormal psychology course in school.
The definition of “abnormal” behavior can be slippery, and it has changed radically over the course of human history. Mental and emotional disorders, maladaptive behaviors, and behaviors which cause significant discomfort are all studied in abnormal psychology. Psychologists have also developed a comprehensive guide to conditions which have been studied. This guide, called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, provides precise definitions of abnormal conditions, along with criteria for diagnosis and information about treatment options.
Various conditions have appeared and disappeared in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), illustrating changing attitudes about human behavior. At one point, for example, homosexuality was included in the DSM, under the argument that it was a socially maladaptive behavior which could be treated. Today, this argument is not generally accepted in the psychological community, and homosexuality has been struck from the pages of the DSM, while countless other behaviors related to gender and sexuality have been added.
People who work in the field of psychology usually want to improve emotional well-being for people who seek psychological help. When someone goes to the doctor for depression, for example, the doctor can use the DSM to diagnose depression, but the patient also needs assistance, which can take a variety of forms, depending on the individual psychologist's approach to the problem. People can also seek treatment for things like social anxiety disorder, anger disorders, and a wide variety of other conditions which impair quality of life.
The field of abnormal psychology recognizes that there are many influences on psychological development, including situational factors, environmental influences, and genetics. Their goal is not to force people to achieve “normality,” but to help people who struggle with mental and emotional disorders so that they can live more fulfilling, active lives. Some people work in research, studying people as a collective whole to learn more about human behavioral patterns, while others work as care providers, providing services directly to individuals.