Advanced grammar is the study of composition rules and techniques beyond the basic level. Success in studying grammar beyond the basics generally requires a solid foundation in the correct use of words, phrases, sentence clauses, and paragraphs. Students of advanced grammar are usually approaching the completion of their high school educations, and a working knowledge of language at this level is considered by some a requirement to do well at the university level. Second language learners who have mastered structural rules and syntax also study advanced grammar in preparation for language proficiency exams that are sometimes required to determine eligibility for citizenship, study abroad programs, or certain job roles.
A good working knowledge of advanced grammar is considered essential for writing proficiency regardless of the subject and purpose. College-level courses in this subject generally focus on the process of building consistent and clear written sentences that follow an established set of rules. The study of these types of structural rules often entails exercises in correct pronoun references, sentence variety, and word choices. Grammar students are also sometimes asked to experiment with creating different emphases by first writing the same topic in the active versus the passive voice and then comparing the two choices.
Learning to apply the principles of advanced grammar involves understanding the various types and structures of written communication. Language is often flexible by nature, and it can be used for many purposes such as to narrate, to describe, to argue, and to expose. Any of these writing objectives can be effectively accomplished with the application of rules for good word choice and style. These rules generally serve as means for unifying a group of sentences into a paragraph that clearly expresses a main idea.
Morphology is an additional area of focus in the study of advanced grammar; it relates to the sometimes significant changes in meaning that can happen to the same word when the tense or context is also changed. Second language learners can sometimes find this area of grammar challenging if the morphology rules are considerably different from those of their native language. An understanding of morphology is usually considered a prerequisite for studying phonology, which is an area of linguistics that is mainly concerned with the nuances and phonics of spoken language. The study of sound tied to grammar structure is one of the main ways to develop an in-depth understanding of a given language's subtle meanings.