Cerebral edema is a condition characterized by the presence of a large amount of fluid in the brain. If not treated, it can be fatal, or cause severe brain damage, and the quicker a patient is treated, the better his or her chances of recovery will be. Because this condition can be extremely serious, evaluations to check for signs of it are common when patients are brought in for head trauma, because healthcare professionals want to catch it as early as possible.
When a patient has cerebral edema, there is way more fluid in the skull than there should be. This causes the brain to swell, which has a number of consequences. The swelling can compromise the brain's blood flow, much like water will not flow through a hose that is stepped on. Decreased flow of blood to the brain can cause brain damage or death. The increased pressure may also force the brain to move around in the skull, which it is not designed to do.
Treatment involves relieving the pressure in the skull, getting rid of the fluid, and getting to the root cause of the problem to see if it can be prevented from happening again. The use of corticosteroids can help bring the swelling down, while diuretics will help the body express the excess water, which will further reduce the swelling. Sometimes, surgical means are used to relieve pressure on the brain as well, although this can be dangerous.
People who have suffered head injuries are at the most risk of developing cerebral edema, especially if the injuries were severe. The brain does not react well to being jostled around or smashed abruptly into things, and it may respond by starting to retain water. This condition can also develop at high altitude, causing what is known as High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE), a condition that can rapidly turn fatal if a climber does not descend promptly.
Someone who is developing this problem may demonstrate an altered state of consciousness, confusion, dizziness, nausea, lack of coordination, or numbness. If someone receives a head injury and any of these symptoms appear, medical attention should be sought immediately. It's always better to be safe than sorry when it comes to brain injuries; medical professionals would far rather look at a healthy patient to alleviate fears than see a patient when it is too late.