Declarative memory is the part of long term memory which is concerned with the storage of factual information, in contrast with procedural memory, which is involved with the storage of the physical memory of how to do something. Put simply, when you tie your shoes, procedural memory is the part of the memory which allows you to remember how to tie your shoes, while declarative memory is the part of the memory where you store the information like the word “shoe,” and the memory of learning to tie your shoes.
The region of the brain where declarative memory is stored is the temporal lobe. There are two basic forms of declarative memory: episodic and semantic. Episodic memories are linked with particular times and places, and could be considered personal memories, such as experiences of certain events. Semantic memory is the memory concerned with the storage of factual information which is not linked to a particular experience.
People can access information in their declarative memory through the process of recall. Recall can often be imperfect, especially when the acquisition of a memory is surrounded by stress or intense emotions, or when a memory is not accessed very regularly. Witnesses to crimes, for example, often give differing accounts at different times because their episodic memory recall is less than perfect, while someone who learned all the capitals of the world in elementary school might have trouble recalling them 40 years later because he or she hasn't accessed that particular semantic memory in a long time.
People with damage to their temporal lobes can experience problems with their declarative memory. Some people may find it difficult to acquire new information, or to recall certain information. Amnesia, in which people have difficulty recalling memories, can be short term or persistent, depending on the type of amnesia involved, and it may be quite debilitating for the patient.
The only way to make declarative memory stronger is to use it. People who learn things by rote and repetition and who repeatedly drill this information will be more likely to recall it in the future. This is why rote learning is such a popular method of teaching people, as are teaching techniques which force people to shuffle and recall memories in new ways. For example, someone learning Spanish would learn the verb conjugations by rote, and practice their use in routine conversation to strengthen their abilities to recall conjugations quickly and accurately.