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Grade separation refers to the engineering technique of aligning roads or railways so that they cross at different heights, thus avoiding intersections at the same level. This is commonly seen in overpasses, underpasses, and bridges where highways intersect or where roads and railways cross paths. The primary goal is to enhance traffic flow and safety by reducing conflict points and potential collision sites. According to the Federal Highway Administration, grade separation can significantly decrease the likelihood of intersection-related crashes, which account for more than 50% of combined fatal and injury crashes in the United States.
Implementing grade separation in urban planning and infrastructure development is a strategic move to accommodate growing traffic volumes and improve efficiency. For instance, a study by the Minnesota Department of Transportation found that converting intersections to grade-separated interchanges resulted in a 70% reduction in injury crashes and a 30-40% increase in traffic capacity. By eliminating stoplights and waiting times at crossroads, grade separation not only streamlines traffic but also contributes to reduced vehicle emissions and fuel consumption, making it an environmentally and economically beneficial solution.
Grade separation is a process used to improve traffic flow at intersections and junctions. With grade separation design, each road or rail surface is placed at a different grade, or elevation. This difference in elevation is accomplished using tunnels, ramps, bridges and interchanges at every point where the two roads or rails cross one another. For example, an elevated train running above a roadway is considered an example of rail grade separation. An urban light rail system, where the train cars move with traffic at street level, is not grade separated.
There are many different types of grade separation projects, which are categorized by the type of surfaces each is separating, as well as how the difference in elevation is accomplished. These projects may involve railroads, freight trains, subways or metros, monorails, or even pedestrian walkways. Even the process of separating two separate automotive roadways is considered a type of grade separation.
In a fully-separated or free-flowing grade separation design, traffic in all directions can continue to flow without stopping or slowing where the roads, rails or paths cross. An example of this would be a pedestrian bridge or a "cloverleaf" intersection, where raised ramps allow vehicles to travel from one highway to another without stopping. Grades that are partially separated include intersections where motorists or pedestrians might have to slow or yield, such as a roundabout. A traditional intersection that uses traffic signals involves no grade separation.
This type of project design offers a number of advantages over roads and rails that are all built at the same elevation. All types of traffic are able to flow more freely, with little to no interruptions, and speed limits are usually higher. The greatest benefit is the separation of different types of traffic, including cars, trains and pedestrians, which lowers the risk of accidents for all parties.
At the same time, many residents who live near grade-separated intersections often oppose them. They are generally built fairly high, which can obstruct views. The appearance of grade-separated roadways and bridges in particular is generally unpleasant, and consists of massive concrete or steel structures that extend high into the air. It is much more costly to build tunnels or bridges than to build at ground level, and these projects take up a great deal of space, both during and after construction is complete. Finally, the complexity of these projects often means that they take a long time to complete, which can disrupt traffic flow for years.