Military phonetics refers to a type of phonetic alphabet, or spelling alphabet, used by military forces. Like other phonetic alphabets, military phonetics represents each letter of the alphabet with a specific word starting with that letter, which can be used to spell out words, acronyms, or alphanumeric designations. They are commonly used by military forces because of their usefulness as a way to make quick but clear audio communications.
One reason for the importance of military phonetics is that it makes a message more likely to be understood in a situation where there is significant background noise or where parts of the message are missing. For example, similar-sounding letters such as B, D, and G can be difficult to distinguish in a noisy environment, and if segments of a message are inaudible due to background noise or radio interference, the audible segments remaining may not be comprehensible. The words “baker,” “delta,” and “golf,” on the other hand, are more clearly distinct from each other and more likely to be understood the first time. This can be essential in a military context, where time is often of the essence; misunderstanding of communications can have disastrous consequences; and noise from weapons, engines, and equipment or static during radio transmissions can make spoken communications difficult to hear clearly.
The best-known system of military phonetics in use today is the NATO phonetic alphabet, named after the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It is also called the ICAO alphabet, referring to the International Civil Aviation Organization. In addition to its military use by NATO members, it has also been adopted for use by civilian organizations, including the US Federal Aviation Administration and the International Maritime Organization.
Each letter of the alphabet is assigned a specific word. Most of the NATO alphabet's words are either in English or are readily recognizable to most English speakers, such as “whiskey” for W, “hotel” for H, and “X-ray” for X. In some cases, the spelling is different to prevent confusion caused by the different spelling rules of different written languages. For example, the letter A is represented by “alfa” rather than the English spelling “alpha” so that the proper pronunciation is clear.
Common military terminology is often derived from military phonetics, using a short series of words from their phonetic alphabet to represent commonly used terms and phrases. Examples from the United States military include “Oscar Mike” for “on the move” and “Lima Charlie” for “loud and clear.” In some cases, these terms become sufficiently well known that their meaning is commonly understood even outside the military. For example, the use of the term “Charlie” as a name for Communist forces in the Vietnam War comes from “Victor Charlie,” referring to the Viet Cong.