The calcaneocuboid joint is a synovial gliding joint found in the foot. A synovial joint is the most movable type of joint found within the human body. There are cavities between the bones of the joint that are filled with fluid. This synovial fluid helps to lubricate as well as protect the joint from damage, particularly from sudden or harsh movements. The calcaneocuboid joint assists with various types of movement involving the foot.
The location of this joint is between the calcaneus bone, also known as the heel bone, and the cuboid bone. The cuboid bone lies just in front of the heel bone and gets its name from the fact that it appears to have the shape of a cube. Each of these bones has a flat surface, as this is what makes this joint a gliding joint. To be classified as a gliding joint, the joint must connect two flat, bony surfaces.
Ligaments are strong bands of fibrous tissue that work to connect one bone to another. There are five different ligaments that work to provide strength and support to the calcaneocuboid joint. These ligaments are called the plantar calcaneocuboid, long plantar, bifurcated, capsular, and dorsal calcaneocuboid ligaments.
Many different types of foot movement are made possible by this joint. Rotating and sliding movements are among the types made possible by this joint. Inversion and eversion, which is the ability to move the foot in a side to side motion, is also made possible by this joint. Moving the foot up and down is also the responsibility of the calcaneocuboid joint.
Foot pain is a common problem and can often be traced to this joint. Physical trauma, such as that occurring from sports injuries, is a common cause of foot pain. Arthritis affecting this joint can also have negative side effects. Treatment depends on the cause of the pain as well as the overall health of the patient.
Pain medications are often prescribed to treat the pain. Medical testing is necessary to determine the reason for the joint pain. If the pain is related to a physical injury, rest, medications, and physical therapy are often prescribed. If arthritis is the cause, the patient will often be referred to a specialist called a rheumatologist to determine the type of arthritis present. Arthritis treatment varies according to type but generally involves oral medications, and in some cases, injections are given to help relieve symptoms.