One thing most people don’t consider when they’re planning to have surgery is exactly how they’ll be positioned on the surgical table when the operation takes place. Many assume that they’ll be lying flat on their backs, which is called the supine position. There are many other positions that might be used depending on type of surgery and access needed while the surgery is ongoing.
Someone in the supine position is on his or her back, in almost a completely flat position. He or she might have a pillow under the head or under some type of the body to promote greater comfort. In many positions during surgery, people’s bodies are secured to the table with some form of strap, and strap placement might depend on where the actual surgery will take place. A strap around the waist might be appropriate for chest surgeries, such as many types of heart or neck surgeries. The strap might be placed higher on the body if access is needed to the abdominal cavity, pelvis or legs.
When the patient is on his or her back, it is sometimes necessary to move the table, not the patient. When people are lying supine with the table tilted so the head is lowered, this is called the Trendelenburg position. The Fowler position has the patient lie supine with the head elevated, not necessarily with a full tilt of the table. One concern with supine positions is the potential to cause breathing issues with certain patients, and the Fowler might address this.
Another variation can be seen when the knees are bent, with the feet still placed on the table. This is referred to as the dorsal recumbent position, and it is used for many different surgeries or exams. Women might labor in some form of the dorsal recumbent position, or they may be put in this position during a pelvic exam. If the head is elevated, the dorsal recumbent might be named the jackknife.
People do not always lie on their backs, and access to the body might be needed by fully switching or changing position halfway. People could lie in lateral decubitus positions and be on their right or left sides. Sometimes, a surgery needs to be performed prone, which means a person lies on the stomach, instead. If access to things like the spine is needed, this position may be preferable.
It may be possible to gain access to the area of the body requiring surgery from a variety of positions. Surgeons may choose based on patient health, other medical conditions, and personal preference.