Treatment of white matter disease starts after diagnosing the patient, which includes taking X-rays, MRI scans and CT scans. In order to treat the condition, the patient must control the vascular risk factors, especially variable hypertension. Apart from this, the patient is prescribed vitamin B6 supplements or Pyridoxine. Patients who also have migraines are given proper care in order to prevent the migraine so the condition can be treated. Diabetic patients are advised to strictly keep their condition under control, as well as people with high cholesterol.
White matter disease affects the white matter which is present between the neurons of the brain and spinal cord. It is composed of nerve fibers which help in communication, and is covered by a fatty sheath called myelin covers. This disorder is mainly categorized into two types: childhood white matter disease (CWMD) and multiple sclerosis and neuro-inflammatory disease (MS). Although the disease in adults is different from the one found in children, both the types affect the same part of the brain: the white matter. As such, the neurological effects are the same. In some cases, the disease is degenerative; it worsens and damages the brain over time. In other cases, it does not cause further damage to the brain.
In childhood white matter disease, there are two sub types: genetic disorders and acquired damage. Genetic CWMD is divided into metabolic and non metabolic. Acquired CWMD is due to hypoxic ischemic brain damage which is caused during birth, which mostly affects infants of premature birth. As such, children who are affected by childhood white matter disease show multiple categories of disorders with many causes. Most of the time, however, the disease has a genetic component. The main problem for most of the patients in this category is that a diagnosis is difficult to establish. Multiple sclerosis and neuro-inflammatory disease are diseases of the white matter that are related to the immune system and can be caused either by genetic factors or environmental factors. In MS, the adults affected are usually between the ages of 20 and 40.
In some cases when neurons or fiber tracts have died, general medications such as anti-Parkinson's and antidepressant drugs can be helpful. During the course of treatment, medications are altered and adjusted depending upon the patient’s condition. Apart from this, physical therapies are performed. Several actions can be taken to prevent future damage to the blood vessels once the disease has been diagnosed. Although there is no permanent cure, the disease can be treated by surgery or brain cell transplants.