A filibuster is an attempt to delay or stop the vote on an issue within a legislative body. In the United States Senate, the person opposed to a bill is allowed to speak indefinitely on any topic unless 60 members of the Senate bring a motion to stop them, a process known as "cloture." The point of a filibuster is to postpone a vote long enough to raise public awareness of the bill, thereby garnering support and forcing the legislators' hands to the people's will. The longest filibusters sometimes require cots and other materials to be brought in for the attending Senators.
Topping the list of the longest filibusters in US history is one by South Carolina Senator, Strom Thurmond, on 28 August 1957, beginning at 8:54 p.m. He argued against the Civil Rights Act for a record 24 hours and 18 minutes. Reports say that he had a large steak dinner beforehand to maintain energy, and took a steam bath to vent liquids so he could avoid using the lavatory during the process. Thurmond told no one of his plan, and hoped to incite fellow Southerners to sway their Senators' votes. The filibuster was unsuccessful, as no senator changed their vote following the event. As of 2009, this 52 year old event still tops the list of the longest filibusters.
Oregon’s Wayne Morse had another of the longest filibusters when he spoke against Tidelands Oil Legislation on 24 April 1953. Senator Morse was most known for leaving the Republican Party following Richard Nixon's appointment as Dwight Eisenhower's running mate. He reportedly came to the Senate the following day with a folding chair, and the words: "Since I haven't been given any seat in the new Senate, I decided to bring my own." His filibuster on the Tidelands Oil Legislation, which gave offshore rights to states, was only one of the many areas he was known to be contentious on. In historical references, he was often referred to as the original "maverick". His filibuster, then the longest in history, lasted 22 hours and 26 minutes.
Number three in the list of the longest filibusters in US history - is Louisiana’s Huey Long on 12 June 1935. Senator Long has been called the “master of the Senate filibuster.” His longest attempt was delivered to continue requiring Senate confirmation for senior employees of the National Recovery Administration. When he began to run out of words, he suggested that those in the Senate ask questions. When no one took him up on the offer, the press began to send in questions. After these questions stopped coming, he offered recipes for fried oysters and "potlikkers" before finally yielding after 15 hours and 30 minutes of continuous speech.