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What is a Puffball?

By Dakota Davis
Updated May 23, 2024
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A puffball is a fungus that belongs to the Basidiomycota phylum, which encompasses several different families and genera of fungi. It is called a "puffball" because when it matures, its fruiting body bursts open to release a puff of brown, dust-like spores. Puffballs are natural decomposers, and are most often found in meadows, grassy areas, and on heaths and lawns. They vary dramatically in size and appearance, from small species that grow together in clusters to larger species like the famous giant puffball, which can reach 12 inches (30 cm) or more in diameter.

A puffball is a Basidiomycete, which means its spores are produced on a small, club-shaped structure called a basidia. It is distinguished by its gasteroid basidiocarp, which is also known as its fruiting body. Spores are produced inside of this basidiocarp, which stays closed until the spores have been released from the basidia. That happens when the fruiting body ripens, and the rind tears open from some mild pressure — like the impact of a raindrop, the force of the wind, or someone other impetus. Spores then escape through the tear, creating a puff or cloud of dust.

A young puffball often looks like a white sphere, is fleshy in texture, and may or may not have a short stalk, depending upon the variety. The inside is made up of undifferentiated flesh, where the spores are produced in the interspaces of a compact rind. As the fungus matures, the flesh transforms into yellowish-brown or brown spore dust.

Many puffballs are edible before maturity, although once they begin to turn yellow inside and form powdery spores, they should not be consumed. They are easily distinguished from other mushrooms because of the fleshiness of their inner consistency. A puffball that is larger than a fist is unmistakable, but smaller puffball varieties should be checked carefully to avoid confusion with poisonous species. They can be differentiated from deadly varieties of the Amanitas — like the Death Cap mushroom — because they don't have stems or gills inside, and unlike stinkhorns, the interior will not have any slime.

Edible puffballs are known for having a rich, earthy flavor and can be found most frequently in the fall. They stand up well to all kinds of cooking and add a strong mushroom flavor that permeates throughout a dish. They usually cook in 7 - 15 minutes, and can be dehydrated or cooked and frozen for future use.

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Discussion Comments
By shell4life — On Sep 16, 2011

My puppy was fascinated by puffballs. I used to take her walking through a meadow near my yard when she was a few months old, and we would come upon several of these every time.

She was tiny and probably weighed less than some of the puffballs we encountered. She jumped a distance longer than her body length the first time she popped a puffball. She sprang backward, ran forward to it, and retreated before actually touching it.

She did a little dance around it, barking and pawing at it. She found that every time she touched it, a little more brown stuff puffed out.

Ever since that day, she has sought out puffballs to play with on our walks. She is the first dog I have ever known who would rather hunt a fungus than an animal.

By lighth0se33 — On Sep 16, 2011

I have had puffballs in my lawn ever since I can remember. I recall being shocked the first time I stepped on one and it burst open. It appeared to be filled with cocoa powder.

I told my mother that I knew where cocoa came from. I showed her the open puffball, and she explained what it was. She also told me not to eat it.

I had a lot of fun with puffballs once I knew how they operated. When a patch of them sprung up in my yard, I took a sack of marbles outside and threw them at the puffballs. I loved watching them pop open.

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